Category: shlwaiubv

Per Stenbeck heads up UNICEF’s global fundraising

first_img Tagged with: Management Recruitment / people Per Stenbeck takes over UNICEF’s fundraising on Monday as Deputy Director, Private Sector Division, Head of Fundraising, based in Geneva.Stenbeck spent five years as Executive Director of Greenpeace Nordic, and before that was Chief Executive of the International Fund Raising Group, now the Resource Alliance. Speaking about his new position, he commented: “I couldn’t resist the temptation of another major challenge in fundraising.” Advertisement  37 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of Researching massive growth in giving.center_img Per Stenbeck heads up UNICEF’s global fundraising Howard Lake | 21 August 2002 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThislast_img read more

DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal

first_img  25 total views,  1 views today DEC East Africa Crisis Appeal DEC’s East Africa emergency appeal of July 2011, narrated by actor Jason Isaacs. Tagged with: Individual giving AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Howard Lake | 18 July 2011 | News  26 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Advertisement About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

Borotba call for support for Kushnarev of Odessa

first_imgOn May 2, 2014, at least 48 anti-fascist protesters were murdered by right-wing Ukrainian nationalists at the House of Trade Unions in Odessa, southeastern Ukraine. Those killed had opposed the right-wing coup that had recently taken place in the country’s capital, Kiev, with active support from the U.S. government. Union Borotba (Struggle), the Marxist organization which issued this statement, was outlawed by the new regime and now operates underground. This statement was translated by Workers World contributing editor Greg Butterfield.Appeal to left and anti-fascist organizations in Europe and worldwide on the arrest of Alexander KushnarevComrades!On Feb. 23, a flagrant event happened in Odessa: agents of the Security Service of Ukraine arrested Alexander Kushnarev, the father of anti-fascist Gennady Kushnarev, who was slain on May 2, 2014.He is accused of organizing the kidnapping of Parliament Deputy Alexei Goncharenko, who was photographed posing with Gennady’s body on May 2.Alexander Kushnarev, like the other relatives of the House of Trade Unions dead, is a major obstacle to the Ukrainian government, which is trying to cover up the massacre that occurred on May 2, 2014, in Odessa.These relatives refuse to be silent about this tragedy. They hold memorial rallies, produce literature about the events of May 2 and knock on the doors of all international human rights organizations.Such activity by the relatives of the dead is a “sore spot” for the Ukrainian authorities, as it prevents them from presenting Ukraine to the international community as a democratic country.In order to silence these people, the regime took a vile step: using the grief from the loss of his son, they set up the father of the deceased anti-fascist to seek revenge. For greater resonance, the chosen target was a deputy of the Ukrainian Parliament who took part in the suppression of the opposition on May 2, 2014 — Alexei Goncharenko.To be fair, it must be said that Alexei Goncharenko didn’t kill anyone, nor was he the organizer of the massacre. However, he was the one who reported the victory of pro-government forces during the live broadcast on the country’s main TV networks. He did this against the background of the dead Gennady Kushnarev. As a result, the hatred of Odessa residents for this personality is extremely great.The problem goes even deeper. This situation was made possible because the investigation of the mass murder at the House of Trade Unions by law enforcement agencies was sabotaged. For nearly three years, Odessa anti-fascists have languished in Ukrainian prisons.Meanwhile, the murderers who executed those who leapt from windows to escape the burning building, including those who shot peaceful citizens of Odessa, are still at large. It is this absence of justice which makes people seek justice on their own.The authorities provoked this act intentionally to have an excuse to arrest other activists of the anti-fascist movement. And so, immediately after the arrest of Alexander Kushnarev, searches began of the homes of activists of Kulikovo Field.We appeal to all concerned people for solidarity! We ask you to organize pickets and rallies outside Ukrainian embassies and consulates, as well as in the streets of your cities!We ask for the maximum circulation of the information that the Ukrainian government, after assassinating the anti-fascists, wants to imprison their parents!We will seek the release of Alexander in all international legal bodies, and in case of failure — through prisoner exchange.We will not allow them to silence the May 2 massacre in Odessa!Borotba is always on the side of those who think and fight!FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

Education workers and class struggle

first_imgFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this Milwaukee public school students joined education workers, parents and community to fight funding cuts, April 7.This is a lightly edited version of a talk given at the Midwest Marxist School in Detroit in April 2018.In late February, education workers in all 55 counties of West Virginia went on strike for nine days. They ultimately won their strike demands despite the state’s right-to-work (for less!) status and the unions’ attempt to end the strike prematurely. Since then, public school teachers in Oklahoma, Arizona, Puerto Rico and, most recently, Milwaukee, have picketed or engaged in work stoppages to challenge the economic austerity policies that have stagnated their wages and destroyed public schools.Whenever education workers engage in class struggle, leftists (and I use this term the way it’s used colloquially in the U.S., broadly: those who are opposed to hierarchical divisions of society based on class, race, gender, and other factors) become engaged in an old argument about the education system under capitalism. Since the West Virginia strike, this argument has been circulating again, so I’d like to briefly talk about some of its foundations and some of its misuses. Then I’d like to explain why we as communists support education workers when they exercise their power to resist ruling-class attacks.For a long time, leftists have been aware of the public education system’s potential role in supporting capitalist social relations that reinforce the power of the ruling class. Schools controlled by the capitalist state can be used to transmit ruling-class ideology, ensuring the transmission of cultural capital across generations and socializing children into the dominant hierarchies of being.Some arguments take these conclusions a step further by claiming that teachers, by their participation in such a system, are doomed to transmit ruling-class ideology even though they themselves are working-class. This argument is often made by comparing teachers to cops. People who make this comparison assert that institutions of education play the same role as institutions of armed repression because the capitalist state administers them both and the state wants to reproduce capitalist social relations at all costs.There are, superficially, similarities between those two institutions, schools and prisons. Both are usually run by the state, although sometimes privatized. Both involve physical control over the bodies of young people. But the important differences between these institutions have to do with who them and why they exist in the first place.The police are accountable to the state and its law first and foremost. They are trained, socialized and required to uphold laws which systematically favor property, patriarchy and white supremacy. Modern policing arose as a way for the ruling class to control large groups of people: striking workers and slave insurrections.Both the origin and the current function of policing are such that instituting direct community control of this institution — making cops directly accountable to the people who live under the law — would end policing as we know it. The police as an institution are defined by their role in a system of domination: it makes no difference to this institution if the people who have to live under these laws agree with them or not. There is no possible way to reform the police without fundamentally changing the nature of policing.Public education, on the other hand, is not — at its origin — a project that serves the ruling class. Fundamentally, teachers have the potential to exercise much more autonomy than the police in the performance of their job. This doesn’t mean that public education cannot be used by the ruling class to reproduce social relations that favor capital and maintain inequality and white supremacy. A school can be a tool for social discipline, an incubator for a compliant work force and a way for liberals to support the mythology of meritocracy in the U.S.But free universal public schooling can also be, and has been, something that working-class and oppressed communities have fought for and that the ruling class has, vehemently, fought against.This is because schooling has not always been solely a ruling-class project in the way that policing has been, and because, when schooling has threatened to turn into such a project, students, parents, teachers and their communities have resisted. Teachers and their unions have fought to keep legislative interference, which serves the interests of the ruling class, out of their classrooms.In addition, striking education workers frequently raise demands that highlight radical goals beyond their own wages (though those demands are just and valid too). In Oklahoma, education workers specifically included in their demands a call to repeal a capital gains tax exemption, which largely benefits the wealthy, that reduced funding for public schools.The March teacher strike in Puerto Rico against public school closings, and the expansion of charter schools to replace them, was a battle in the larger struggle against the U.S.-instigated privatization-for-profit of public services. Arizona teachers included in their demands an initiative to increase taxes for incomes greater than $250,000 to fund schools. Teachers are striking for students, families, their communities and the institution of free, accessible education for all.The ruling class obviously would rather use the education system as an incubator for labor-power than allow it to be a resource for the working class. Their first option will always be to limit education to technical skills or whatever is necessary to simply reproduce labor-power in the configuration that capital requires.Historically, teachers have had the power to actively resist the demand to produce generations of compliant workers. In response, the ruling class has spent their time and money both attacking public education itself and attempting to use schools as sites to promote their own ideology.A politicized, powerful, education worker movement can ensure that control over what children learn is in the hands of the working class: the teachers — rather than the ruling class: the administrators and policymakers who serve capital.If the argument is that U.S. schools serve to reproduce the social conditions of capitalism, with all its racism, woman-hating and more, it’s an obvious result that a shift of power away from education workers toward the ruling class would only intensify this.Attacking education worker struggles helps the ruling class use the education system for their own goals: a compliant working class, the reproduction of white supremacy and the protection of their own capital accumulation.The ruling class recognizes that, when teachers are unionized and legally protected from right-wing retaliation, those teachers can hold leverage over significant ideological institutions that are funded through progressive taxes and constantly threaten to slip out of ruling-class control. Politicized school workers’ movements remain the way forward in making sure that schools do not simply act as cogs in a machine of repression.This is why free public education for all, with education workers who have autonomy from ruling-class interests, should be a transitional demand in a capitalist state.Photo: Milwaukee Teachers’ Education Associationlast_img read more

Crowell Public Library Presents Medicare 101 – A Virtual Workshop

first_img 13 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Herbeauty8 Celebrities People Don’t Love AnymoreHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty7 Most Startling Movie Moments We Didn’t Realize Were InsensitiveHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyRed Meat Is Dangerous And Here Is The ProofHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Brutally Honest Reasons Why You’re Still SingleHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Most Influential Women In HistoryHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyWant To Seriously Cut On Sugar? You Need To Know A Few TricksHerbeautyHerbeauty Make a comment Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Community News Crowell Public Library Presents Medicare 101 – A Virtual Workshop Tuesday, September 8 – 10:00 a.m. STAFF REPORT Published on Monday, August 3, 2020 | 1:57 pm Subscribe STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy More Cool Stuffcenter_img Community News Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week Top of the News Business News Whether one is approaching age 65 or is already receiving Medicare benefits, experiencing this free educational webinar on the Zoom platform will be most beneficial. On Tuesday, September 8 at 10:00 am, Medicare 101 will cover the basic rules, regulations and time frames seniors need to know. If you are interested in streaming this program, please send an email to [email protected] and we will send you the link to the program.An independent broker working in Pasadena, John Dickey will present an hour’s program on the many aspects of Medicare and will answer all questions. He will serve as a free resource and advocate, now and at any time in the future, to help people find the Medicare information they need. John’s guidance, and advocacy on behalf of seniors is always totally independent of any insurance company and is governed by CMS (Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services).When the time comes to choose a Medicare plan, reviewing all of the options can be overwhelming. This “Medicare Made Clear” meeting will offer tools and resources that make it easier to understand and apply all of the basic rules of Medicare. Learn the rules of Medicare, the available elections and options, how to avoid penalties, and what Parts A, B, C, D, and E are.John Dickey has given numerous presentations throughout San Gabriel Valley on Medicare, including Arcadia, Altadena and Monrovia. He frequently attends insurance training seminars and classes to stay current on all government regulations and available plan options. He is a fully licensed certified Health Insurance Planner, has an MBA, and has lived in San Gabriel Valley for 20 years.Don’t miss this opportunity to get all your questions on Medicare answered. Sign up by sending your email to [email protected] If you need help getting comfortable with the Zoom platform, please contact Eric, Crowell Library’s Tech Whiz on Mondays or Wednesday from 1-4:00pm at (626) 300-0777 extension 544.Crowell Public Library, 1890 Huntington Drive, San Marino, (626) 300-0777, or faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Donald CommunityPCC- COMMUNITYVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Community News Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadenalast_img read more

Gujarat HC Launches E-Writ Module To Send Digitally Signed Copies Of Bail Orders To The District Courts [Read Press Release]

first_imgNews UpdatesGujarat HC Launches E-Writ Module To Send Digitally Signed Copies Of Bail Orders To The District Courts [Read Press Release] Sparsh Upadhyay4 Oct 2020 1:45 AMShare This – xThe Gujarat High Court on Friday (02nd October) launched eWrit Module to send digitally signed copies of Bail Orders from High Court to District Courts.On recommendation of the Judges of the ICT & e-Governance Committee of the High Court, a new module to make available digitally signed Bail Orders of the High Court to the concerned District Courts across the State was launched on the…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Gujarat High Court on Friday (02nd October) launched eWrit Module to send digitally signed copies of Bail Orders from High Court to District Courts.On recommendation of the Judges of the ICT & e-Governance Committee of the High Court, a new module to make available digitally signed Bail Orders of the High Court to the concerned District Courts across the State was launched on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti, by the Chief Justice Vikram Nath.”This new module called the e-Writ Module has been developed in-house by the IT Cell of the High Court, having the workflow of uploading, verifying and approving digitally signed Bail Orders of the High Court in PDF, which, upon e-dispatch through this module, automatically show up to the concerned District Court through their access to the eWrit system for onward processing of the same”, reads the Press Release.The Bail Order is digitally signed at three hierarchical levels in the concerned judicial department of the High Court so as to ensure complete authenticity and accuracy.Role of the District CourtThe concerned District Court, after the necessary procedure of acceptance the surety etc. as per the Bail Order of the High Court, would upload the copy of the communication sent to the concerned Jail, which in turn will become available with the access of the eWrit Module to the concerned Jail for purpose of the cross checking with the Jail Yadi received from the concerned Court.Litigant centric benefits of the eWrit Module (as per the Press Release):1. Apart from serving to the cause of the environment by saving paper, this new litigant centric initiative of the High Court of Gujarat would save the time of physical transmission of Bail Orders from the High Court to the concerned District Court while also providing an authentic version of the Bail Order for prompt action upon the same.2. As a result of this eWrit Module of High Court of Gujarat, the inmates, who have been ordered to be released on bail, would not have to remain incarcerated unduly longer for any possible delays that may be faced in physical transmission and receipt of the Bail Orders by their family members or Ld. Advocates.3. While this eWrit module will make available the digitally signed Bail Orders to the concerned District Court, an email notification will also automatically go the Ld. Advocate representing the inmate in the High Court matter about such Bail Order having been issued from the High Court.4. The whole progress of the compliance of the Bail Order will also be possible to be monitored through this eWrit module by the concerned judicial department of the High Court.It may be noted that On Friday (2nd October), the Gujarat High Court decided to start the publication of select High Court Orders/Judgements in the Gujarati Language on the Gujarat High Court’s website.The Press Release to this effect reads,”As desired by Honourable the Chief Justice of High Court of Gujarat, Mr. Justice Vikram Nath and as further recommended by Honourable Judges of the Artificial Intelligence Committee of the High Court, Honourable the Chief Justice has been pleased to pass directions to start uploading one order/judgment of this High Court per working day in the Gujarati language on the website of the High Court for the benefit of litigants and the general public.”(emphasis supplied)Click Here To Download Press Release[Read Press Release] Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Storylast_img read more

Armed security guard charged with assault in connection to LA synagogue shooting caught on camera

first_imgPattanaphong Khuankaew/iStock(LOS ANGELES) — An armed security guard at a Los Angeles synagogue was arrested after allegedly shooting a person recording video of the building in the leg.Edduin Zelayagrunfeld, 44, was arrested on a felony charge for assault with a deadly weapon with a firearm, according to a statement from the Los Angeles Police Department. He worked at the Etz Jacob Congregation/Ohel Chana High School near the intersection of Beverly Boulevard and Stanley Avenue.When police arrived on the scene at around 12 p.m., they found an “individual suffering from a gunshot wound to the leg,” according to the LAPD statement. The victim of the shooting was transferred to the hospital with a non-life-threatening injury.The alleged victim was live-streaming the school and the ensuing incident on YouTube. The LAPD confirmed that Zelayagrunfeld is the security guard in the video and can be seen pointing the gun down as the cameraperson zooms in and out on the weapon.“This guard just pulled a gun out on me, everybody,” the person holding the camera says in the video.Zelayagrunfeld can be heard saying, “Why are you recording us? Why are you recording me? Why are you recording this institution? You cannot answer?”“He said he was going to shoot me dead if I moved,” the cameraperson says shortly after.A single shot is fired just over a minute later, and the cameraperson immediately retreats. They can be heard yelling that they had been shot in the leg, while Zelayagrunfeld tells them to “get away” and that it was a “warning shot” and they “are nothing.”Zelayagrunfeld was released from jail Friday on $50,000 bond. He’s scheduled to appear in court on March 15.The LAPD did not disclose the name of the victim.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.last_img read more

Palaeontological studies for CRP-3: introduction

first_imgThe drillhole at CRP-3 was the deepest of the project and offered early hopes of retrieving a long plalaeontological record. However, the reality was that the fossilcontent dropped off markedly in the lower half of the hole, leaving some tantalising unknowns and uncertainties concerning palaeoenvironments and biochronology. Thus,authors agree that the age of the bottom of CRP-2/2A is early Oligocene, as is the top of CRP-3, but the amount of possible overlap is debatable and even slight underlap islikely. Likewise, despite some palaeontological hints that the lower part of the Cenozoic sequence could be within the topmost Eocene, just how much is uncertain.Twelve papers address aspects of the fossil remains found within the CRP-3 drillcoreso far.last_img

NUS Vice-President cleared of Malia coup attempt claims

first_imgAn inquiry has found that NUS Vice-President Richard Brooks did not conspire to remove Malia Bouattia as President of the NUS, and cleared him of any wrongdoing.In January, it was alleged that hidden camera footage from Al Jazeera depicted the senior NUS officer plotting against its President.Brooks denied any wrongdoing, and referred himself to an internal investigation in the Union.Following the results of the investigation, Brooks posted on Facebook, attacking the “far left candidates electioneering and anti-Semites who troll anyone mentioned with the word Israel next to their name”.Brooks told Cherwell: “I’m relieved that the investigation, which I referred myself for, has found no evidence of any wrongdoing on my part.“I hope this is now a moment where we all can come together ensuring we continue to do great work transforming students’ lives and make students’ unions even better.”Since her election as NUS President in 2016, Malia Bouattia has been criticised for alleged anti-Semitism and has been criticised for “outright racism” in a report by the Home Affairs Select Committee. The initial allegations against Brooks had surfaced in an Al-Jazeera report titled “The Lobby”, which claimed it had found evidence of Israeli influence in student politics and the Labour Party.Brooks wrote online: “I do not work on behalf of the Israeli Government. I have never met anyone from the Israeli Government.“I have not accepted funds from the Israeli Government. It is a lie to say or infer otherwise.”He added: “The last month has been a difficult one for me. My phone has lit up constantly from social media abuse, my family and friends checking on how I am and lies and mistruths posted about me all over the world.“By most people’s standards, it was a sharp start to elections season.”Malia Bouattia and the NUS have been contacted for comment.last_img read more

When fairness prevails

first_imgPhilosophers and scientists have long puzzled over the origins of fairness. Work by a group of Harvard researchers offers some clues, with the discovery that uncertainty is critical in the concept’s development.Using computer simulations of evolution, researchers at Harvard’s Program for Evolutionary Dynamics (PED) — including Director Martin Nowak, scientist David Rand, and junior fellow Corina Tarnita — found that uncertainty is key to fairness. Hisashi Ohtsuki from the Graduate University for Advanced Studies in Kanagawa, Japan, also contributed to the study. Their work was described in a Jan. 21 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“A number of papers have studied the evolution of fairness over the years,” said Rand, who will begin an assistant professorship at Yale this summer. “Our novel contribution was to take the effects of randomness into account. What we found was that as we turned up the uncertainty in our simulations, it fundamentally changed the nature of the evolutionary dynamic. The result was that in a world that has a lot of uncertainty, it actually became optimal to be fair, and natural selection favored fairness.”To model fairness, Rand and colleagues used the Ultimatum Game, which involves two players bargaining over a pot of money. The first player proposes how the money should be split. If the second player accepts the offer, the money is split as proposed; if the offer is rejected, the game is over and neither player gets anything.“The reason this game is interesting is that if you assume everyone is rational and self-interested, the second player should accept any offer, because even if they’re getting only one dollar it’s still better than nothing,” Rand said. “The first player should anticipate that, and should make the minimum possible offer.”The game almost never works that way, however.Instead, Rand said, many people will reject offers they believe are unfair. Earlier studies have shown that as many as half of players will reject offers of 30 percent or less — meaning they are effectively paying to retaliate against the other player for making such a low offer, or to stop the other player from getting ahead.“The proximate psychological explanation for why people behave this way in the Ultimatum Game is that they have a preference for fairness, and they’re willing to pay to create equality,” Rand said. “The question we were trying to answer was: Why? Why did we come to have those preferences?”Rand and his colleagues built a series of computer players, each of which had a specific strategy describing how much they would offer, and how much they would accept. Each round, all the computer players played the game with one another. Then they updated their strategies in a process similar to genetic evolution.“You can think of it as though the players that earned higher payoffs attracted more imitators. Players sometimes choose to change their behavior, and when they do, they copy the strategies of players who were more successful,” Rand explained. “It could also represent actual genetic evolution, where players with [a] big payoff leave more offspring. Either way, higher payoff strategies tend to become more common in the population over time.”By observing which strategies become dominant over multiple generations, the researchers were able to track how the system evolved, and saw that fairness offered players an evolutionary advantage, but only when uncertainty was factored into the system.To test whether these results would play out in the real world, Rand and colleagues used the online labor market Amazon Mechanical Turk to recruit hundreds of volunteers from around the globe. After playing the Ultimatum Game, participants were asked how easy it was for people in their community to determine who is, and who isn’t, successful.“We found exactly what the model predicted, which, I think, wouldn’t have been at all obvious had we not done the modeling first,” Rand said. “What we found is a correlation — the more uncertainty there is about who is successful and who isn’t, the more fair people are in the Ultimatum Game.”Understanding why that is, however, is trickier.“Think about a world where nobody is offering anything — everyone is completely rational and self-interested,” Rand said. “If you introduce a fair person into a world like that, they will do poorly, because they will make generous offers, and people will accept them. Other people, however, will make low offers to that person, and they will be rejected. As a result the fair person will never have the chance to succeed.”The same is true of a rational person in a generally fair world. Their low offers will be rejected, resulting in a poor payoff.So what happens if you assume that successful strategies are always successful and unsuccessful strategies are always unsuccessful, as previous studies have?“If you’re in a selfish world, the population can never leave that state, because the fair person is always at a disadvantage,” he said. “If you rely on these kind of deterministic dynamics, that first fair person is always going to die out and fairness as a strategy will never spread.“Whereas in a world where there’s uncertainty, when someone experiments with a fair strategy in a world of selfish people, they will still get a bad payoff, but sometimes just by chance that fair strategy might become more common in the population,” he continued. “And once it becomes common enough, the momentum switches and it’s better to be fair than selfish. That’s how it becomes the favored behavior.”This work was funded by support from the John Templeton Foundation.last_img read more