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Ex-FEMA head takes blame, changing tune

first_imgMAMMOTH LAKES, Calif. – Ex-FEMA Director Michael Brown said Wednesday that he shared the blame for pre- and post-Katrina failures, saying he fell short in communicating the magnitude of the disaster and in calling for help. “I should have asked for the military sooner. I should have demanded the military sooner,” said Brown, the former head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. “It was beyond the capacity of the state and local governments and it was beyond the capacity of FEMA,” he told a gathering of meteorologists at a ski resort in the Sierra Nevada. Brown said he failed to communicate the extent of the devastation to the media and to the federal government. FEMA came under fire immediately after Katrina struck the Louisiana and Mississippi coastlines Aug. 29, killing more than 1,300 in five states and leaving some 3,200 unaccounted for. He was relieved of his on-site command and recalled Sept. 9 to Washington, D.C. Brown resigned three days later, saying he feared he had become a distraction. Asked on Wednesday if he felt he had been railroaded out of his post, Brown replied, “I’m moving on.” He said his biggest concern was the current emphasis on reorganizing FEMA, particularly in light of past budget cuts that had left hundreds of vacancies in an agency with 2,500 employees. “It’s time to stop organizing and get FEMA back to what it was before – get its budget back up to where it was.” 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORESanta Anita opens winter meet Saturday with loaded card His statements changed his version of the events stated during a congressional hearing Sept. 27. At that time, he blamed most of the government’s failure to properly respond to the hurricane on Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco and New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin – both Democrats. “I think it’s important to realize that all of us made mistakes,” he told The Associated Press in an interview after his speech. “After a while you get a different perspective. I still do believe that things weren’t working too well down there. I’m not into this whole thing of ‘let’s blame somebody for this or that.’ But let’s figure out what went wrong and what we can do to make it better next time.” He told attendees at the annual Operation Sierra Storm – a gathering of broadcast and National Weather Service meteorologists at snowy Mammoth Mountain Ski Area – that he failed to delegate responsibility and instead tried to attend to the details himself. “It was the largest natural disaster ever to strike the United States – 92,000 square miles. Logistics were falling apart,” he said. President George W. Bush appointed Brown to head FEMA in April 2003. He previously chaired the Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority, served on the City Council in Edmond, Okla., and practiced law in Oklahoma and Colorado. last_img read more


Familiar foes face off in Charlie Lakin Championship Tournament title games

first_imgEureka >> At the beginning of every Humboldt-Del Norte League season, one of the goals displayed in every locker room is to win the county tournament.Today, four teams will have a chance to fulfill that goal. On the baseball diamond, the Big 5 regular season champion Eureka Loggers aim to defend their Charlie Lakin Baseball Tournament championship against league-nemesis Arcata, the No.2 team out of the Big 5, at 6 p.m. today at the Arcata Ball Park.The county softball tournament title will …last_img


South Africa’s languages

first_imgSouth Africa’s population diversity means all 11 languages have had a profound effect on each other. South African English, for example, is littered with words and phrases from Afrikaans, Zulu, Nama and other African languages. (Image: Brand South Africa)South Africa is a multilingual country. Its democratic Constitution, which came into effect on 4 February 1997, recognises 11 official languages, to which the state guarantees equal status.Sections in this article:IntroductionLanguage distributionProvincial variationsAfrikaansEnglishNdebele XhosaZuluSotho sa LeboaSothoTswanaSwatiVendaTsongaIndigenous creoles and pidginsIntroductionBesides the official languages, scores of others – African, European, Asian and more – are spoken in South Africa, as the country lies at the crossroads of southern Africa. Other languages spoken here and mentioned in the Constitution are the Khoi, Nama and San languages, sign language, Arabic, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Portuguese, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu. There are also a few indigenous creoles and pidgins.English is generally understood across the country, being the language of business, politics and the media, and the country’s lingua franca. But it only ranks fourth out of 11 as a home language.South Africa’s linguistic diversity means all 11 languages have had a profound effect on each other. South African English, for example, is littered with words and phrases from Afrikaans, Zulu, Nama and other African languages.And African-language speakers often pepper their speech with English and Afrikaans, as this Zulu example recorded in Soweto by MJH Mfusi shows (English is in italics, and Afrikaans in bold):“I-Chiefs isidle nge-referee’s optional time, otherwise ngabe ihambe sleg. Maar why benga stopi this system ye-injury time?”“Chiefs [a local soccer team] have won owing to the referee’s optional time, otherwise they could have lost. But why is this system of injury time not phased out?”Language distributionAccording to the 2011 census, Zulu is the mother tongue of 22.7% of South Africa’s population, followed by Xhosa at 16%, Afrikaans at 13.5%, Sotho sa Leboa at 9.1%, English at 9.6% and Tswana at 8.0%.Sotho is the mother tongue of 7.6% of South Africans, while the remaining four official languages are spoken at home by less than 5% of the population each.Additionally, 0.5% of the population indicated that they use sign language to communicate in the home.                                      SOUTH AFRICAN LANGUAGES 2011                                      LanguageSpeakersPercentageZulu11 587 37422.7%Xhosa8 154 25816.0%Afrikaans6 855 08213.5%English4 892 6239.6%Northern Sotho 4 618 5769.1%Tswana4 067 2488.0%Sotho3 849 5637.6%Tsonga2 277 1484.5%Swati1 297 0462.5%Venda1 209 3882.4%Ndebele1 090 2232.1%Sign language234 6550.5%Other languages828 2581.6%Total50,961,443100.0%Spoken as a home language.Source: Census 2011Most South Africans are multilingual, able to speak more than one language. English- and Afrikaans-speaking people tend not to have much ability in indigenous languages, but are fairly fluent in each other’s language. Most South Africans speak English, which is fairly ubiquitous in official and commercial public life. The country’s other lingua franca is Zulu.Zulu, Xhosa, Swati and Ndebele are collectively referred to as the Nguni languages, and have many similarities in syntax and grammar. The Sotho languages – Tswana, Sotho sa Leboa and Sotho – also have much in common.Many of South Africa’s linguistic groups share a common ancestry. But as groupings and clans broke up in search of autonomy and greener pastures for their livestock, variations of the common languages evolved.Provincial variationsThe languages you will hear most frequently spoken in South Africa depend on where in the country you are.Tswana, for instance, is spoken by 63,4% of people in the North West, but in Limpopo 52,9% of the population speaks Sotho sa Leboa, and Swati is the most widely spoken language in Mpumalanga,at 27,7%. In Northern Cape and Western Cape, Afrikaans is thelanguage most often spoken in the home at 53,8% and 49,7% respectively.Predominant languages by province (census 2011 figures) are:Eastern Cape – Xhosa (78.8%), Afrikaans (10.6%)Free State – Sotho (64.2%), Afrikaans (12.7%)Gauteng – Zulu (19.8%), English (13.3%)KwaZulu-Natal – Zulu (77.8%), English (13.2%)Limpopo – Sotho (52.9%), Venda (16.7%)Mpumalanga – Swati (27.7%), Zulu (24.1%)Northern Cape – Afrikaans (68%), Tswana (33.1%)North West – Tswana (63.4%), Afrikaans (9%)Western Cape – Afrikaans (55.3%), Xhosa (24.7%), English (19.3%)Source: Census 2011 The dominant language in the different regions of South Africa. The map does not indicate the number of language speakers, simply the language most commonly spoken. So, while Afrikaans dominates the Northern Cape, that province is sparsely populated, so the actual number of Afrikaans speakers is limited. Similarly, KwaZulu-Natal is densely populated, so there are a great many isisZulu speakers in the province.AfrikaansAfrikaans is the third most common language in South Africa. According to the 2011 census, it is spoken by 13.5% of the population, or 6 855 082 people – mainly coloured and white South Africans. The language has its roots in 17th century Dutch, with influences from English, Malay, German, Portuguese, French and some African languages. One of the first works of written Afrikaans was Bayaan-ud-djyn, an Islamic tract written in Arabic script by Abu Bakr.Initially known as Cape Dutch, Afrikaans was largely a spoken language for people living in the Cape, with proper Dutch the formal, written language.Afrikaans came into its own with the growth of Afrikaner identity, being declared an official language – with English – of the Union of South Africa in 1925. The language was promoted alongside Afrikaner nationalism after 1948 and played an important role in minority white rule in apartheid South Africa. The 1976 schoolchildren’s uprising was sparked by the proposed imposition of Afrikaans in township schools.Afrikaans is spoken mainly by white Afrikaners, coloured South Africans and sections of the black population. Although the language has European roots, today the majority of Afrikaans-speakers are not white.In South Africa’s provinces the Northern Cape and Western Cape are dominated by Afrikaans speakers – 53.8% and 49.7% respectively. In Gauteng 13.4% of people speak Afrikaans, 9% in the North West, 10.6% in the Eastern Cape, and 12.7% of the Free State’s population.AfrikaansHome language to: 13.5% of the population (6 855 082 people)Linguistic lineage: Indo-European > Germanic > West Germanic > Low Franconian > AfrikaansSources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue EnglishEnglish has been both a highly influential language in South Africa, and a language influenced, in turn, by adaptation in the country’s different communities. Estimates based on the 1991 census suggest that some 45% of the population have a speaking knowledge of English.English was declared the official language of the Cape Colony in 1822 (replacing Dutch), and the stated language policy of the government of the time was one of Anglicisation. On the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, which united the former Boer republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free State with the Cape and Natal colonies, English was made the official language together with Dutch, which was replaced by Afrikaans in 1925.Today English is the country’s lingua franca, and the primary language of government, business, and commerce. It is a compulsory subject in all schools, and the medium of instruction in most schools and tertiary institutions.According to the 2001 census, English is spoken as a home language by 8.2% of the population (3 673 206 people) – one in three of whom are not white. South Africa’s Asian people, most of whom are Indian in origin, are largely English-speaking, although many also retain their languages of origin. There is also a significant group of Chinese South Africans, also largely English-speaking but who also retain their languages of origin as well.South African English is an established and unique dialect, with strong influences from Afrikaans and the country’s many African languages. For example: “The old lady has been tuning me grief all avie, coz I bust her tjor going yooees with the okes in Bez Valley” would translate as: “My mother has been shouting at me all afternoon because I crashed her car doing U-turns with my friends in Bez Valley.”As a home language English is most common in KwaZulu-Natal, where over a third (34.9%) of all English-speaking South Africans are found, making up 13.6% of the provincial population. Another third (30%) of English speakers live in Gauteng, where it is the language of 12.5% of the population, and 23.8% in the Western Cape, where it is spoken by 19.3% of the population.EnglishHome language to: 8.2% of the population (3 673 206 people)Linguistic lineage: Indo-European > Germanic > West Germanic > EnglishSources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue NdebeleNdebele, the language of the Ndebele people, is one of South Africa’s four Nguni languages. The Ndebele were originally an offshoot of the Nguni people of KwaZulu-Natal, while the languages Nala and Nzunza are related to those of Zimbabwe’s amaNdebele people.Like the country’s other African languages, Ndebele is a tonal language, governed by the noun, which dominates the sentence.Ndebele is a minority language, spoken by only 1.6% of South Africa’s population, or 711 825 people. It is largely found in Mpumalanga, where 48.6% of its speakers are found, or 12.1% of the provincial population. Almost a third of isiNdebele speakers reside in Gauteng, but make up only 2.3% of the population.IsiNdebeleHome language to: 1.6% of the population (711 825 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Nguni > isNdebeleAlternate and historical names: Tabele, Tebele, Ndebele, Sindebele, Northern NdebeleSources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue XhosaSouth Africa’s second-largest language, Xhosa is spoken by 17.6% of all South Africans, or 7 907 149 people. It is a regional language, with a third of its speakers living in the Eastern Cape, where it is the language of 83.4% of the provincial population. It’s also strong in the bordering Western Cape, where 13.6% of all Xhosa speakers live, making up nearly a quarter of the provincial population.There are a fair number of Xhosa speakers in the Free State, North West and Gauteng (respectively 9.1%, 5.8% and 7% of the provincial population), but it is not widely spoken in the other provinces.Xhosa is one of the country’s four Nguni languages. It too is a tonal language, governed by the noun, which dominates the sentence. While it shares much of its words and grammar with Zulu, 15% of its vocabulary is estimated to be of Khoekhoe (Khoisan, or Khoi and Bushman) origin.Famous Xhosa South Africans include former President and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Nelson Mandela, and former President Thabo Mbeki.IsiXhosa Home language to: 17.6% of the population (7 907 149 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Nguni > isiXhosaAlternate and historical names: Xhosa, Xosa, KoosaDialects: Gealeka, Ndlambe, Gaika (Ncqika), Thembu, Bomvana, Mpondomse (Mpondomisi), Mpondo, Xesibe, Rhathabe, Bhaca, Cele, Hlubi, Mfengu.Sources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue ZuluZulu is the most common language in South Africa, spoken by nearly 23% of the total population, or 10 677 315 people. It’s the language of South Africa’s largest ethnic group, the Zulu people, who take their name from the chief who founded the royal line in the 16th century. The warrior king Shaka raised the nation to prominence in the early 19th century. The current monarch is King Goodwill Zwelithini.A tonal language and one of the country’s four Nguni languages, Zulu is closely related to Xhosa. It is probably the most widely understood African language in South Africa, spoken from the Cape to Zimbabwe.The writing of Zulu was started by missionaries in what was then Natal in the 19th century, with the first Zulu translation of the bible produced in 1883. The first work of Zulu literature was Thomas Mofolo’s classic novel Chaka, which was completed in 1910 and published in 1925, with the first English translation produced in 1930. The book reinvents the legendary Zulu king Shaka, portraying him as a heroic but tragic figure, a monarch to rival Shakespeare’s Macbeth.Zulu is an extremely regional language, with 71.8% of its speakers to be found in KwaZulu-Natal, where it is the language of 80.9% of the provincial population. Over 18% of Zulu speakers are to be found in Gauteng, the second province in which it is in the majority, with its speakers making up 21.5% of the provincial population. The third province in which the language is the largest is Mpumalanga, where it is spoken by nearly a quarter of the population, who make up 7.6% of all South African Zulu speakers. The presence of the language in the remaining six provinces is negligible.ZuluHome language to: 23.8% of the population (10 677 315 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Nguni > isiZuluAlternate and historical names: Zulu, ZundaDialects: Lala, QwabeSources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue Sotho sa LeboaSotho sa Leboa, or Northern Sotho, is referred to as Sepedi in the Constitution. However, this is inaccurate, as Sepedi is just one of some 30 dialects of the Northern Sotho language, and the two are not interchangeable.Sotho sa Leboa is the fourth most common language in South Africa, spoken as a home language by 9.4% of the population, or 4 208 974 people. It is one of South Africa’s three Sotho languages, with different dialect clusters found in the area where it is spoken.Sotho sa Leboa is the language of Limpopo, where it’s spoken by 54.8% of the provincial population – 65.1% of all Sotho sa Leboa speakers. It’s also found in Gauteng, where nearly a quarter (24.3%) of Sotho sa Leboa speakers are to be found, making up 11.2% of the population. In Mpumalanga 10.2% of the population speak Sotho sa Leboa, or 8.1% of all speakers of the language.Confusion in the Constitution: According to the Parliamentary Monitoring Group, the language was mentioned correctly as Sotho sa Leboa in the interim Constitution of 1993. However, when the final version of the Constitution came into law in 1996, the language had been changed to Sepedi. The reason for the change has never been established.The Pan South African Language Board (Pansalb) investigated the matter and came to the conclusion that Sepedi was indeed a dialect of Sotho sa Leboa.Translation organisation translate.org.za, which is responsible for the translation into vernacular languages of many popular open source software applications such as web browser Firefox and office suite OpenOffice.org, says that the language and the dialect are often mistaken for each other. While there are many people who speak Sotho sa Leboa, not all of them speak Sepedi.Pansalb encourages multilingualism through the equal use of all official languages and the abolition of discrimination against any language. The board’s stance, therefore, is that Sotho sa Leboa is the language which must be promoted.Translate.org.za also states that it now avoids using the term Sepedi in reference to the Northern Sotho mother tongue.Sotho sa LeboaHome language to: 9.4% of the population (4 208 974 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Sotho-Tswana > Sotho > Northern SothoAlternate and historical names: Pedi, Sepedi, Northern Sotho, Sesotho sa LeboaDialects: Masemola (Masemula, Tau), Kgaga (Kxaxa, Khaga), Koni (Kone), Tswene (Tsweni), Gananwa (Xananwa, Hananwa), Pulana, Phalaborwa (Phalaburwa, Thephalaborwa), Khutswe (Khutswi, Kutswe), Lobedu (Lubedu, Lovedu, Khelobedu), Tlokwa (Tlokoa, Tokwa, Dogwa), Pai, Dzwabo (Thabine-Roka-Nareng), Kopa, Matlala-Moletshi. Dialects Pai, Kutswe, and Pulana are more divergent and sometimes called ‘Eastern Sotho’. Sesotho, Sesotho sa Leboa and Setswana are largely mutually intelligible but have generally been considered separate languages.Sources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue SothoSotho is another of South Africa’s three Sotho languages, spoken by 7.9% of the country’s population, or 3 555 192 people.It is the language of the Free State, which borders the kingdom of Lesotho, a country entirely surrounded by South African territory. Sotho is spoken by 64.4% of the Free State population, or 49% of all Sotho-speaking South Africans. It is also found in Gauteng, where it is spoken by 13.1% of the population – a third (32.4%) of all Sotho-speaking South Africans – and in North West, where it is spoken by 6.8% of the population.With Tswana and Zulu, Sotho was one of the first African languages to be rendered in written form, and it has an extensive literature. Sesotho writing was initiated by the missionaries Casalis and Arbousset of the Paris Evangelical Mission, who arrived at Thaba Bosiu in 1833.The original written form was based on the Tlokwa dialect, but today is mostly based on the Kwena and Fokeng dialects, although there are variations.SothoHome language to: 7.9% of the population (3 555 192 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Sotho-Tswana > Sotho > SesothoAlternate and historical names: Suto, Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Southern SothoDialects: Sesotho, Sesotho sa Leboa and Setswana are largely mutually intelligible but have generally been considered separate languages.Sources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue TswanaTswana is largely found in North West, a province bordering the country of Botswana, where the language dominates. One of South Africa’s three Sotho languages, it is the country’s fifth most common home language – closely followed by English – being spoken by 8.2% of the total population, or 3 677 010 people.Tswana is spoken by 65.4% of all North West residents, or 56.2% of all Tswana-speaking South Africans. It is also found in the Northern Cape, where it is spoken by 20.8% of the population, as well as in Gauteng (9.9%) and the Free State (6.8%).Tswana was the first Sotho language to have a written form. In 1806 Heinrich Lictenstein wrote Upon the Language of the Beetjuana (as a British protectorate, Botswana was originally known as Bechuanaland).In 1818 Dr Robert Moffat from the London Missionary Society arrived among the Batlhaping in Kudumane, and built Botswana’s first school. In 1825 he realised that he must use and write Tswana in his teachings, and began a long translation of the bible into Tswana, which was finally completed in 1857.One of most famous Tswana speakers was the intellectual, journalist, linguist, politician, translator and writer Sol T Plaatje. A founder member of the African National Congress, Plaatje was fluent in at least seven languages, and translated the works of Shakespeare into Tswana.TswanaHome language to: 8.2% of the population (3 677 010 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Sotho-Tswana > TswanaAlternate and historical names: Chuana, Coana, Cuana, Tswana, Sechuana, BeetjuansDialects: Tlahaping (Tlapi), Rolong, Kwena, Kgatla, Ngwatu (Ngwato), Tawana, Lete, Ngwaketse, Tlokwa. Sesotho, Sesotho sa Leboa and Setswana are largely mutually intelligible but have generally been considered separate languages.Sources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue SwatiSwati is one of South Africa’s minority languages, spoken by only 2.7% of South Africans, or 1 194 433 people. It is the language of the Swazi nation, spoken mainly in eastern Mpumalanga, an area that borders the Kingdom of Swaziland.The Swazi people originated from the Pongola river valley in KwaZulu-Natal, migrating from there to Swaziland. Their country was under British control from 1903 to 1968.The vast majority (83%) of Swati speakers are found in Mpumalanga, where they are the majority linguistic group, making up 30.8% of the provincial population. Nearly 11% of Swati speakers are found in Gauteng, where they make up only 1.4% of the population.Swati is one of South Africa’s four Nguni languages, and is closely related to Zulu. But much has been done in the last few decades to enforce the differences between the languages for the purpose of standardising Swati.SwatiHome language to: 2.7% of the population (1 194 433 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Nguni > siSwatiAlternate and historical names: Swazi, Isiswazi, Swati, Tekela, TekezaDialects: Baca, Hlubi, PhuthiSources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue VendaVenda is generally regarded as a language isolate among S-group languages. While the Nguni group, for example, has four languages (Zulu, Xhosa, Swati and Ndebele), the Venda group has only one – Venda. It is the tongue of the Venda people, who are culturally closer to the Shona people of Zimbabwe than to any other South African group.Another of South Africa’s minority languages, it is spoken by 2.4% of South Africans, or 1 209 388 people. It is concentrated in the province of Limpopo, where 73.8% of Venda speakers live, or 16.7% of the provincial population. Another 22.5% of Venda speakers live in Gauteng, where they make up 2.3% of the population.Venda shares features with Shona and Sotho sa Leboa, with some influence from Nguni languages. The Tshipani variety of the language is used as the standard.The language requires a number of additional characters or diacritical signs not found on standard keyboards. For this reason Translate.org.za, an NGO promoting open-source software in indigenous languages, has produced a special program to enable Venda speakers to easily type their language.The Venda people first settled in the Soutpansberg Mountains region, where the ruins of their first capital, Dzata’s, can still be found.VendaHome language to: 2.4% of South Africans (1 209 388 people)Linguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Tshivenda Alternate and historical names: Venda, ChivendaDialects: Phani, Tavha-Tsindi, Ilafuri, Manda, Guvhu, Mbedzi, LembetuSources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue TsongaThe Tsonga people came to South Africa long after most other African people, settling in the Limpopo River valley.Their language, Tsonga, is spoken by 4.5% of the national population, or 2 277 148 people. It is found in Limpopo (17% of the provincial population and 39.8% of Tsonga speakers), Gauteng (6.6% of the population) and Mpumalanga (10.4%). It is also found in eastern Limpopo and Mumalanga, areas near the border of the country of Mozambique, as well as in southern Mozambique and southeastern Zimbabwe.Tsonga is similar to Shangana, the language of the Shangaan people, with some Nguni influences.TsongaHome language to: 4.5% of the populationLinguistic lineage: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta-Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Tswa-Ronga > XitsongaAlternate and historical names: Tsonga, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Shangana, ShangaanDialects: Luleke (Xiluleke), Gwamba (Gwapa), Changana, Hlave, Kande, N’walungu (Shingwalungu), Xonga, Jonga (Dzonga), Nkuma, Songa, Nhlanganu (Shihlanganu). “Tsonga” can be used to describe Xishangana (Shangana or Changana), Tswa, and Ronga, although it is often used interchangeably with Xishangana, the most prestigious of the three. All are recognised as languages, although they are mutually intelligible.Sources: Census 2001 and Ethnologue Indigenous creoles and pidginsTsotsi taal, an amalgam of Afrikaans, English and a number of African languages, is widely spoken in urban areas, mainly by males. The word “tsotsi” means “gangster” or “hoodlum” – given the association with urban criminality – while “taal” is Afrikaans for “language”.Otherwise known as Iscamtho, tsotsi taal developed in cities and townships to facilitate communication between the different language groups. It is a dynamic language, with new words and phrases being regularly introduced.Fanagalo is a pidgin that grew up mainly on South Africa’s gold mines, to allow communication between white supervisors and African labourers during the colonial and apartheid era.It is essentially a simplified version of Zulu and Xhosa – about 70% of the lexicon is from Zulu – and incorporates elements from English, Dutch, Afrikaans and Portuguese. It does not have the range of Zulu inflections, and tends to follow English word order. Similar pidgins are Cikabanga in Zambia and Chilapalapa in Zimbabwe.Fanagalo is a rare example of a pidgin based on an indigenous language rather than on the language of a colonising or trading power.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Email Mary Alexander at [email protected] articlesSouth African EnglishSouth Africa’s ConstitutionRadio in South Africa South African English? No jive, my friend Mozilla funds translate.org.zalast_img read more


Weekly Wrap-up: Teens Don’t “Like” Your Company, New XML Standard, 5 Must-Have Apps for SXSW, and More…

first_imgOur top story this week came from our ReadWriteBiz channel, where writer John Paul Titlow discovered that even though teenagers in the U.S. are online pretty much all the time, they don’t want to like your business on Facebook. Here’s one of the more damning statistics: Only 26% said they feel they can trust a company’s profile on a social networking site. If you listen closely I think you can hear the sound of 10,000 social media marketing experts weeping into their coffee.After the jump you’ll find more of this week’s top news stories on some of the key trends that are shaping the Web – mobile, location, Internet of Things – plus highlights from our six channels. Read on for more.Top Stories of the Week Forrester: Business Intelligence Careers Offer Hope for IT WorkersHootSuite Moves into Social AnalyticsThe Tyranny of Consumerization and the Weapon That is the iPad – Not!ReadWriteStartReadWriteStart, sponsored by Microsoft BizSpark, is a resource for startups and entrepreneurs. Despite Living Online, Teenagers Don’t Want to “Like” Your Company on FacebookHow to Convert a Facebook Profile to a PageFoursquare Makes It Easier for Businesses to Offer “Specials” to Their CustomersReadWriteHackReadWriteHack is a resource and guide for developers. A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Tags:#web#Weekly Wrap-ups LocationFoursquare’s Google Moment: Recommendations Launch TonightRoll Your Own Foursquare: Ushahidi Launches Open-Source Location ServiceMore Location coverageMobileVia SXSW: Infochimps Shows off New Site, 1000’s of New API CallsGroup Messaging Service Convore Goes Mobile with iPhone AppMore Mobile coverageInternet of ThingsNew XML Standard for Super-Fast, Lightweight Applications Announced by W3C10 Smart Links You Missed on Twitter on TodayMore Internet of Things coverageReadWriteEnterpriseReadWriteEnterprise is devoted to enterprise 2.0 and using social software inside organizations. 3 Interesting Reads on Node.jsTry Google APIs From the Browser with Google APIs ExplorerYour GitHub Activity, Now Available on LinkedInReadWriteMobileReadWriteMobile is dedicated to helping its community understand the strategic business and technical implications of developing mobile applications. Despite Living Online, Teenagers Don’t Want to “Like” Your Company on FacebookAdobe Releases Flash to HTML5 Conversion Tool8 Tech Companies That Announced Funding Today: Which is Most Likely to Change the World?New XML Standard for Super-Fast, Lightweight Applications Announced by W3C5 Absolute, Must-Have Apps to Rock SXSW InteractiveMore coverage and analysis from ReadWriteWebCheck Out The ReadWriteWeb iPhone App As well as enabling you to read ReadWriteWeb while on the go or lying on the couch, we’ve made it easy to share ReadWriteWeb posts directly from your iPhone, on Twitter and Facebook using the official ReadWriteWeb iPhone app. You can also follow the RWW team on Twitter, directly from the app. We invite you to download it now from iTunes. An iPad App to View a Windows DesktopA Muddled Look at Today’s Cloud Computing Landscape [Infographic]4 API Trends Seen in Programmable Web’s Milestone NumbersReadWriteBizReadWriteBiz is a resource and guide for small to medium businesses. center_img ReadWrite Sponsors NFC in 2011: Who’s Building Your Mobile Wallet?Case Study: Developer Says Android More Profitable than iOScomScore: Android Now Top Smartphone Platform in U.S.Enjoy your weekend everyone!Subscribe to the Weekly Wrap-upYou can subscribe to the Weekly Wrap-up by RSS or by email below.RWW Weekly Wrap-up Email Subscription form: Related Posts Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Should Your Startup Offer Virtual Internships?It’s March – Time for TechStars’ Startup Madness TournamentReadWriteCloudReadWriteCloud is dedicated to virtualization and cloud computing. 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketlast_img read more


Nitish may expand Cabinet soon for ‘social balance’

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Rajasthan defeat Baroda, win maiden Ranji title

first_imgGiant-killers Rajasthan notched up their maiden Ranji trophy title after defeating hosts Baroda on the basis of their first innings lead in the finals of the premier cricket tournament in Vadodara on Saturday.Resuming their second innings at 201 for four, Rajasthan amassed 341 in 129.1 overs and then reduced Baroda to 28 for four in 14 overs with Deepak Chahar wrecking havoc with three wickets in his seven overs for 15 runs.Earlier, skipper AL Menaria (101), who was dropped twice yesterday, added another 25 runs along with overnight batsman RR Parida (89) en route to his 149-ball century before being caught and bowled by Aditya Waghmode.Parida also couldn’t hang around too long and was trapped in front of the wicket by BA Bhatt.Murtuja Vahora then struck twice to remove Madhur Khatri (18) and Vivek Yadav (13). Deepak Chahar then became Swapnil Singh’s victim as Rajasthan slipped to 282 for nine.But last man and wicketkeeper Rohit Jhalani cracked a 80-ball 43 – studded with seven fours – to add 59 runs with Pankaj Singh (24) to take Rajasthan to 341 in the second innings.Chahar and Pankaj Singh then spitted venom and mowed down the top order at the Moti Bagh Stadium here.The first wicket to fall was KH Devdhar (5) when he failed to negotiate Chahar’s short quick delivery and hooked it in the air as Saxena took the catch at square leg.Two balls later, Pankaj scalped opener JA Kolsawala (13). His good length delivery angled across as going for a drive, Kolsawala edged it to wicketkeeper Rohit Jhalani as Baroda slumped to 18 for two.advertisementIn the sixth over, Chahar claimed his second wicket removing Swapnil Singh. His delivery squared up Swapnil and took his blade’s outside edge to Chopra at second slip.Chahar struck again, dismissing Waghmode to claim his third wicket. He induced a leading edge off the batsman and completed an easy catch as Baroda were reduced to 24 for 4.Later, Rajasthan skipper Hrishikesh Kanitkar attributed the victory to the team effort.”I can’t describe this feeling, it is an honour to play with these guys and it is satisfying that we have done it as a team, it is a team effort, that has been strength this season,” he said.- With PTI inputslast_img read more


F1 Flitterati: Grand Prix’s grand parties

first_imgSachin TendulkarSurprise F1 Merger: Sachin Tendulkar happily waved the chequered flag as Sebastian Vettel whizzed past the finish line at the Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida on October 31. Now racing fans have the new India Racing League to look forward to. Brainchild of Machdar Motor Sports Company ceo,Sachin TendulkarSurprise F1 Merger: Sachin Tendulkar happily waved the chequered flag as Sebastian Vettel whizzed past the finish line at the Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida on October 31. Now racing fans have the new India Racing League to look forward to. Brainchild of Machdar Motor Sports Company ceo M. Darshan, the league will have eight teams from India’s largest cities with two cars each forming a 16-member grid. The usual suspects from the business and glamour worlds are already making a dash for their share of the pie: Shah Rukh Khan, Juhi Chawla, Nagarjuna, with Tendulkar having bought a 26 per cent share with Anjana Reddy, director of Machdar Motor Sports.Preity ZintaF1 Stalkerazzi Basher: As the paparazzi clamoured for Preity Zinta’s attention, she spotted an ambitious stalkerazzo trying to shoot up her black miniature sequined skirt. An enraged Zinta was quickly pacified by a smiling Chunky Pandey.F1 Sartorial Blooper: VJ Rannvijay walked in attired in something he had obviously stolen from a 15-year-old. Cascading suspenders, an ill-fitting navy blue blazer, vest over T-shirt and sagging mom jeans. Shudder.Shah Rukh KhanF1 Keepsake: Though he came in long after Lady Gaga’s performance, Shah Rukh Khan managed to spend a few private moments with her. Gaga gifted him her sunglasses once she found out that the actor’s daughter is a fan. In a moment of darkened privacy under a palm tree outside the after-party at LAP Lounge, a candid G.One announced that his favourite driver was “Mohan, my driver in Mumbai.”advertisementDeepika Padukone and Siddharth MallyaF1 Couple: Siddharth Mallya and Deepika Padukone stuck to their ‘public display of no affection’ rule even though they came together for the race, partied together and well, stayed together.Bipasha BasuF1 Sport: Now that Bipasha is done draping herself over Josh Hartnett for Singularity, she can’t stop tweeting pictures of herself with friend Binal Shah at Buddh. She turned up for the after-party in a Shane and Falguni Peacock but couldn’t pull it off. Hope she chooses her wardrobe as effectively as her workout.last_img read more


Rohde & Schwarz presents deep packet inspection engine at Embedded World

first_imgRohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity will present its OEM DPI engine R&S PACE 2 at Embedded World. By implementing R&S PACE 2 in embedded devices, vendors of firewalls, gateways, switches, and routers are able to gain full IP traffic visibility in real time in order to assure security and connectivity across networks, devices, and applications.Security has become a major concern for the makers of embedded devices that work by isolating systems and offer only partial protection – mainly only against known attack vectors. Vulnerabilities are rising dramatically as the attack surface widens and manufacturers struggle to protect sensitive data, intellectual property, and process integrity. A successful attack on an embedded device or system can expose confidential information such as know-how, intellectual property, customer data, and process intelligence. The Mirai botnet is just one example of how the Internet was taken by storm in late 2016, when it overwhelmed several high-profile targets with massive distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.With its DPI software R&S PACE 2, Rohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity provides an easy-to-integrate, scalable, and customizable turnkey OEM solution to meet embedded security challenges. R&S PACE 2 classifies thousands of applications and protocols, provides content and metadata extraction, and delivers metrics and heuristics from IP traffic in real time. When applied in a firewall, embedded developers can achieve reliable application visibility that allows for controlling of network traffic and for facilitating the secure delivery of critical applications and services.R&S PACE 2 operates in real time, provides weekly application and protocol signature updates and is optimized for fast processing, efficient memory utilization, and classification accuracy.Share this:TwitterFacebookLinkedInMoreRedditTumblrPinterestWhatsAppSkypePocketTelegram Tags: Tools & Software Continue Reading Previous PEAK-System: latest technology on show at embedded world 2018Next AAEON: BOXER-6640 helps to control factory automation with more powerlast_img read more


Sensex tanks over 450 points Nifty finishes below 11000mark

first_imgMumbai: Equity benchmark BSE Sensex tumbled 463 points while the NSE Nifty closed below the key 11,000-mark on Thursday amid heavy selling in metal, banking and tech stocks. Lacklustre economic data, unabated foreign fund outflows and disappointing quarterly earnings also dented market sentiment, traders said. After a weak opening, the 30-share BSE Sensex plunged more than 750 points in late-afternoon trade, before finally ending at 37,018.32, down by 462.80 points or 1.23 per cent. Also Read – India gets first tranche of Swiss bank a/c details Similarly, the broader NSE Nifty dropped 138 points or 1.24 per cent to end at 10,980.00. In the Sensex pack, Vedanta took the biggest hit (5.55 per cent), followed by Tata Motors, SBI, Yes Bank, Bharti Airtel and Infosys, which lost up to 4.50 per cent. On the other hand, Maruti, Power Grid, Reliance, Bajaj Auto, Hero MotoCorp, HUL and NTPC ended in the green, spurting up to 1.86 per cent. Overall investor sentiment was weak after official data released after market hours on Wednesday showed that growth of eight core industries dropped to 0.2 per cent in June, mainly due to contraction in oil-related sectors as well as cement production. Also Read – Tourists to be allowed in J&K from Thursday Additionally, the government’s fiscal deficit touched Rs 4.32 lakh crore for the June quarter, which is 61.4 per cent of the budget estimate for 2019-20 fiscal. On the global front, the US Federal Reserve reduced the benchmark lending rate by 25 basis points to 2.0-2.25 per cent on Wednesday for the first time in more than a decade. However, Fed Chair Jerome Powell said the move was not the beginning of a long series of rate cuts, sending global markets lower. Major automobile manufacturers on Thursday reported disappointing July sales data. In addition, subdued corporate earnings also continued to weigh on the markets, traders said. Foreign investors sold shares worth Rs 1,497.07 crore on a net basis on Wednesday, as per provisional data with stock exchanges. Elsewhere in Asia, Shanghai Composite Index, Hang Seng, and Kospi ended in the red, while Nikkei edged higher. Equities in Europe were trading mixed in their early sessions. Meanwhile, the rupee was trading 26 paise lower at 69.06 against the US dollar (intra-day). The global oil benchmark Brent crude futures fell 1.05 per cent to USD 64.37 per barrel.last_img read more


114 Students Receive Their First Communion At St Thomas St Dorothys

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